Guidelines for Styles and Formats

REAL: Research in Education, Assessment, and Learning

ISSN: 1947-5497,

General Guidelines for Styles and Formats

Your submitted manuscript should try to follow the styles except that it should be in single column with double line spacing. You may ignore most font and formatting requirements as they are for production only. Please write your manuscript with simple formatting so that editors can easily convert it into the required forms. Make sure the references and titles are consistent with the suggested styles.

Fonts, Formatting, and Styles (fonts and formatting are for production only)

Title: Arial 12 points, Bold

Authors: Arial 12 points.  Affiliations Times New Roman at 9-point size italicized.

Body font: Times New Roman (TNR) at 10-point size. This applies to abstracts and all other unspecified texts.

Paragraph Spacing: 6 points space after each paragraph. No spacing in lists, tables and references. 

Reference: Times New Roman at 10-point size.

Level 1 Subtitles: Times New Roman at 10-point size, bold. Numbered with I.  II.  III, all uppercase letters.  

Level 2 Subtitles: Times New Roman at 10-point size, bold. Numbered with A.  B.  C.

Tab position 0.25". First line indent 0.25”. Author/abstract indent 0.5”.

Alignment: All titles and subtitles (left). Body text (justified with hyphenated line breaks)

No extra space in a list.

Equations — starts at 0.25", and ends with (xx). Use only equation editor 3.0. Do NOT use math types.

Figure and table captions use 10 point font. Table captions on top and figure captions at the bottom.  No space before and after each row in a table. No column lines in general. One extra line before and after a table or figure.

Table and figures are centered in a column. Use 9 point TNR in table and 7~9 point Arial or TNR in figures. Figures should have no boarders with white background, no dark fills, and print well in black/white and grayscale.   

Published papers will be in two columns on letter size papers.  Spacing between columns is 0.25".

The margins will be 0.6" top, 0.75" left, right and bottom. 

Do not define document grid and don’t snap to document grid.

Footer at 0.5". Footer font 9 points TNR.

See AJP for all other styles and formats.

Reference Style:

In the Endnotes and References area, begin with correspondence authors’ contact information (email preferred). Then list all endnotes in numerically in the order as they appear in the article. Reference to the endnotes uses a superscript in the text, usually placed at the end of the statement, e.g.2. Please do not use the endnote function in word. Simply list your endnotes numerically in the order they appear in the paper.

One can use endnotes for referring to resources other than published papers and books, such as web links, unpublished discussions/writings, government guidelines, etc.. Give a short description of the nature of the resources and provide a link (or other ways) for accessing the resource.  

Following the endnotes are references in American Psychological Association (Reed) format. For example, you may use to export APA (Reed) style references. All references and notes should be put at the very end of the document after the acknowledgment section and appendixes. 

Reference in the text should be in the format “(Hedges & Olkin, 1985; Gerber et al. 2001a )”. When referencing multiple references with the same author in the same year, it should look like “(Gerber et al. 2001a)”. Quoting statement should be “…, Gerber (2001a) stated that …”.

2    BBC News report, “Mathematicians set Chinese test,”

Gerber, B. L., Cavallo, A. M., & Marek, E. A. (2001a). Relationships among informal learning environments, teaching procedures and scientific reasoning ability. International Journal of Science Education, 23(5), 535–549.  

Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical Methods for Meta-analysis. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

If possible, please provide http links for referenced materials that are not easily accessible.  


Author needs to submit high resolution graphs. If it is a non-vector picture (such as jpg or png, png is preferred), the picture should be in a resolution at 300 dpi or higher.

We strongly encourage you to submit vector based graphs. If you produce the graph from Excel, please send the original excel file in which the graph is created. We will need to modify the style and font directly to produce high quality graphs. 

The size of the graph should be either 1 column width (3.375" or 8.573 cm) or two column width (7.0" or 17.78 cm). The font in the graph should be no smaller than 9 points in its final out put format.

Graphs and figures can be in color when it is necessary. The line width and color should be adjusted to clearly show the features of the graph. Most graphs should have a white background with dark lines. Author needs to ensure that the graph will produce high quality gray scale printouts. Decorative features such as 3-D effects, filled or textured backgrounds, and highlights are discouraged unless these are crucially needed for presenting the data.   

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